Only Antarctica remained hidden until the mid-19th century. In Genoa and Venice he was in charge of the administrative and financial running of the ship. Today’s term would be ‘helmsman’. Examples include: On military vessels he was the highest-ranking noncommissioned officer. The Fluyt has three squared-rigged masts and was a Dutch merchant sailing ship in the 16th to 17th century. A Straetvarder in the 17th century merchant ship of Holland / Ein Straetvarder im 17. There appears to have been a good deal of flexibility, depending on the exact relationships between master, owners and merchants of any particular ship. Determination of propulsive power by model testing, Electric drive and integrated machinery plants, Navigation Acts: Dutch ships masquerading as Spanish vessels. Thus began an effort that has characterized merchant shipping for centuries—to reduce crews to the minimum. In Italy he was in charge of the crew during navigation. In England the boatswain was responsible for supervising the mariners as they worked, and for disciplining them. The British East India Company was paying £40 a ton for ships whereas other owners paid only £25. A long, relatively narrow ship designed to carry as much cargo as possible, the fluyt featured three masts and a large hold beneath a single deck. Education was thin, treatment of sailors despicable, and reverence for established practice defeated the lessons of experience. Local pilots could be hired to enter foreign ports. The role of captain as commander, legal superior and chief navigation officer only appears in England in the 1580s; it was particularly claimed by privateers, although sometimes by merchant commanders. a gunboat of the early 19th century, a French tartane of 1810, a type of vessel that had been developed in 18th century on the French Mediterranean coast, the AXEL THORSEN, a Norwegian gunboat of 1810 the French barge LE CANOT IMPERIAL of 1811 the HMS Melville, an English 74 gun ship of the line of 1813, Rieuse, a 26-gun oar-assisted frégate légère (1674–1698). Jan 25, 2021 - Explore Jonathan Turner's board "17th century English merchant ships" on Pinterest. He was in charge of carpentry repairs on board, and frequently had an assistant (marangoneto). During the first part of the 19th century only naval vessels, the largest merchant ships, and exploration vessels could afford to carry them. Sometimes, there was also a piloot or loodsman on board. It became clear that a power seeking an advantage in shipping would be amenable to supporting the cost and fighting that gaining such colonies might require. Dutch ship yards could build a vessel for about half the cost of an English or French yard. He could also be the freight agent, and was responsible to take decisions about what to load and what to pay for it. They were active in both civil and military vessels, and worked both at sea or ashore in ports (and arsenals) where they acted as bookkeepers and notaries. Outbreaks of disease were common in the crowded conditions on board ship, notably during the transport of troops or slaves: “malignant fevers,” typhus, dysentery, pneumonia, dermatoses, typhoid. Willem Jansz ship: Duyfken 'little dove' (Cape York, 1606) Dirck Hartogh ship Eendracht 'Harmony/Union' (West coast, 1616) Similarly, on English ships, there was no directly comparable role; individual officers took responsibility – the cook for victuals, the carpenter for wood and repair materials, the boatswain for ropes and sails. In the United Provinces, a role existed between common seaman and ship’s boy, the so-called putger. 12th; 13th; 14th; 15th; 16th; 17th; 18th; 19th; 20th; 21st; 22nd; Subcategories. The Venetian buss was rapidly supplanted by another Venetian ship, the cog. The arrondissement flags were established by Royal Regulation of 3 … In France the term seems to be replaced by charpentier de navire in the 17th century. Usually they were slightly larger than a fluyt. As part of the project's comparative approach, we have produced tables of the roles on board merchant ships during the seventeenth century, in Italian, Dutch, English and French, which can also be downloaded from the link below. In Venice this was exclusively a military title, reserved for patricians (members of the Major Council). Among those undertaking more scientific construction was the British shipbuilder Phineas Pett (1570–1647). The English realized quickly that their merchant ships had to carry enough cannon and other firepower to defend their factories at Bombay and elsewhere and to ward off pirates and privateers on the long voyage to and from the East. Frequently the position was given to a boy. That role was gained in part because Oliver Cromwell restricted English trade to transport in English craft. Rationing of fresh water meant sailors could wash neither their bodies nor their clothes. MERCHANT SHIPPING IN THE ECONOMY OF THE LATE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY BY RALPH DAVIS T THOUGH ships sail in the service of trade, trade statistics are poor indicators of the calls made by trade upon shipping. There could also be a bottelier (steward), responsible for the bottles, and thus the drinks. Bilge water stagnated in the hold, a sort of nautical cesspool and breedin… A buss of 240 tons with lateen sails was required by maritime statutes of Venice to be manned by a crew of 50 sailors. The town was enlarged in 1820 and 1852 by the setting back and then destruction of its ramparts. When the Hansa declined in power in the 16th century the Dutch, just then beginning to gain independence from Spain politically and from Portugal in trade, gained a major part of the English carrying trade. This constituted a restriction of many of the world’s trade routes to a single colonial power. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. This article is a list of French naval frigates during the Age of Sail, from the middle of the 17th century (when the type emerged) until the close of the sailing era in the middle of the 19th century. In Genoa, even for the early modern period the term should refer to the owner, but in the documents it frequently appears as being the master on board ship. Holland’s “Golden Century” was the 17th, and England’s overtaking of France as Europe’s seat of industry also occurred then. those owned by individuals or business enterprises), which were not part of the Marine Royale, as well as frigates built for the French East India Company(Compagnie des Indes) unless the latter were subsequently acquired by the Fren… See more ideas about sailing ships, 17th century, century. What was known as patron in early modern Venice could be both the ‘master’ and the ‘owner’, although from the 15th century it appears to have been used only for owners who were also masters. In France he was the highest rank among the sailors, answered only to the master, and gave instructions to the crew on rigging, sails and ropes. The 1589-1610 figures demonstrate the extent to which the London, the Thames, Essex and Suffolk had come to dominate the English shipbuilding trade by the early 17th century. Naming your boat after a saint, the Virgin Mary, or some other religious reference was the most popular method. The Venetian buss was rapidly supplanted by another Venetian ship, the cog. These were the ships that Cabot used to reach Newfoundland and Drake, Frobisher, and Raleigh sailed over the world’s oceans. Often used in convoys to and from the East Indies and for voyages of exploration. These were inexpensive to build, and could carry a large cargo. This category is for ships launched in the 17th century. Seamen specifically designed to fire the guns were called Busschieters. He cooked for everyone on board, although usually officers and crew ate different food and in a separate space. In the United Provinces, the term kapitein was used on military vessels. On Italian ships he acted as public notary on board. On mercantile ships, the ‘lord of the ship’ was called the schipper (skipper), although – like in France – he could take on the title of kapitein if he was in command of a large ship. The Dutch became the innovators in the second half of the 17th century and maintained that status until the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars. In Dutch, this term was not used much. Ship - Ship - 17th-century developments: With the emergence of the eastern trade about 1600 the merchant ship had grown impressively. In the 16th century the sailing ship in general service was the Dutch fluyt, which made Holland the great maritime power of the 17th century. They were from 150 to 200-ton ships. During the seven-teenth century English foreign trade was not only growing rapidly but He took care of the books, and this is the only role that was given only to properly literate individuals. The (hooch)bootsman was in charge of them. In the Royal Navy, the term corresponded to the Venetian as a military role, with ‘master mariners’ to take care of the actual navigation. In Italy the bombardier was part of the crew, and was paid by the captain/master. Generally, freight contracts mentioned ‘a man goes with on behalf of the freighter’. EAST INDIAMAN In the United Provinces, there was no directly comparable officer. In Dutch freight contracts, crew members are often labelled as ‘good men’. In today’s usage the word is synonymous with pilot, whilst in seventeenth century documents he appears to be always distinct from it. In the United Provinces, the schrijver was the person responsible for all that related to writing. I choose the HMS Royal Charles, the giant Brittish flagship built in 1655 The merchant shipping anchorage southeast of Texel by Ludolph Backhuysen, 1661 Private collection (image 2819×2291 px, 1.87MB) T his painting shows the merchant anchorage off the island of Texel, where ships of the Dutch East Indian Company (VOC) used to gather before setting sail for East Indies. Captains were appointed who then let out the functioning command to the highest bidder. In contrast, in the New World of America and Australia there was so little existing production of trading goods that the establishment of ties required not only the pioneering of the trading route but also the founding of a colony to create new production. So the translation is correct for the 16th century, but not in the 21st century understanding of captain. The result was that the East India merchantmen were very large ships, full-rigged and multimasted, and capable of sailing great distances without making a port. var addthis_config = {"data_track_clickback":true}; Exeter Local Maritime Archives Project (ELMAP), Nocher (Mediterranean) Contre-maître (Atlantic), Maître d’hache (Mediterranean) Charpentier de navire (Atlantic), Seamen Mariners ‘Common seamen’ ‘Common men’ ‘Foremast men’, Marinier (?Mediterranean) Marin (Atlantic) Matelot (Atlantic). They were paid more than fanti (see below) and were usually ‘career’ seamen. During the 17th century in France, especially on the Atlantic seaboard, capitaines slowly replaced masters on bigger commercial vessels. I did a forum search but did not find an answer that addressed my specific question. Consult the Crew List Index Project (CLIP) website, which has information about merchant ships from 1861 to 1913. Some European merchants settled there, but there was no large-scale migration; production of the goods followed established procedures and remained in Asian hands. The merchants’ agent on board. He was also responsible for the sail on the mainmast; he could have a mate, responsible for surveying the stern. This article is a list of French naval frigates during the Age of Sail, from the middle of the 17th century (when the type emerged) until the close of the sailing era in the middle of the 19th century. This was particularly true of oceanic navigation, because larger crews were expensive to pay and to provision—and the large amounts of provisions necessary were sometimes critical on long voyages. Using our site | Freedom of Information | Data Protection | Copyright & disclaimer | Privacy & Cookies |. In France, different words were used in the Mediterranean and Atlantic. Some early (17th century–1830) documents relating to the movement of ships in and out of Scottish ports, are to be found at the National Archives of Scotland. Much fine shipbuilding emerged, including ships of the English East India Company, but the company began to freeze its designs too early, and its operating practices were a combination of haughty arrogance and lordly corruption. The fireships were intended to be used to set enemy ships on fire, and were often converted merchant ships, though some were specially built for the Royal Navy. On English ships, the ship’s boat was often called a ‘cockboat’ or ‘coxboat’, hence ‘coxwain’; not present on all ships. Its lower status is sometimes also reflected in the 1740 definition of ‘he who does the dirtiest work on board’. When it comes to history, maritime pursuits had undoubtedly enhanced the ‘reach’ of humankind, from the perspective of both migrational activities (like the Austronesian people) and trade networks (like the Phoenicians). The person in charge of the merchandise on behalf of the freighter is often named as such, without a specific term being assigned to him. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The tables excludes privateer frigates (i.e. In 1651 laws were initiated by Cromwell to deal with the low level of maritime development in England. The table includes the main terms found in each language and a brief description of the duties of each. It was also known as the Fleut or the Fluit, and was a great cargoship since it had a lot of storage space and only required a skeleton crew to operate it. In the United Provinces, the stuerman was the person with knowledge of navigation, in charge of the helm and steering the ship. On August 29, 1686, the intendant in Flanders, Dugué de Bagnols, wrote a bitter protest against a decree of the previous year levying a 20 percent tariff on imports from the Levant, except for goods carried on French ships from the Middle East that had entered the ports of … The crew of a square-sailed cog of the same size … The French terms are comparable. The roles of gunner in English and cannonier in French were comparable to the Italian bombardier. Lloyd's Register was first published in 1760 (the earliest known surviving copy is dated 1764) and then annually since 1775. A blog about recreating 17th century ships with computer generated images. Thanks to 17th century military port, the commercial success with the West Indies in the 18th century and the emigration toward America the 19th century, Le Havre developed rapidly and its population increased strongly. Home | Contact us | Staff | Students | iExeter (Staff and Students) | Site map | 中文网. Islands and coastlines were added to sailing charts almost on an annual basis. He was to attend to those in the cabin, meaning the officers and more specifically, the captain or skipper. In the United Provinces, this was the youngest of the non-commissioned officers, and in charge of a sloop. In France we find two terms for this role: dépensier or cambusier, the latter derives from the fact that he lived in the cambuse (front part of the ship) where food provisions were kept. The reason that the 100-ton figure features so much in discussions of Elizabethan merchant shipping is because since the 15 th century, English governments had regarded 100 tons as the smallest useful size for a merchant ship that could be put into naval service. In the United Provinces, the kwartiermeesters were in charge of those small boats. The French coasts were divided in five metropolitan maritime arrondissements, each of them being divided in two sectors, and in two colonial sectors. They slept in steerage, cramped quarters choked with the stench from buckets of excrement. When Europeans began to undertake trading voyages to the East, they encountered an ancient and economically well-developed world. The term meester only occurred in freight contracts when the skipper was also (part-)owner of his ship, in expressions such as: ‘skipper and master next to God of his ship named...’. In the accumulation of capital, by countries and by individuals, this mercantile activity was of the utmost importance. Not only the merchants, but also some intendants, were joining the laissez-faire camp during the 1680s. In the United Provinces the constabel (or konstabel) was the overseer of the armament, while not necessarily firing it himself. Their age range could go between 13 and 16, and at times also served as learning post for aspiring officers. He was also in charge of the ‘boatswain’s stores’, comprising the rigging and sails, and sometimes supervised and recorded stowage of goods, with occasional references to a ‘boatswain’s book’. This role seems not to have always been present, and the word in itself is only rarely used. We know that the two positions – master and owner – regularly overlapped during these centuries. The most common terminologies are bootsgezel, matroos and varensgezel. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. They also seem to have started a style: black hull with a white stripe. To secure the strength and competence of these great merchant ships, advances in shipbuilding were necessary. After the restoration of the Stuart monarchy, English shipping nearly doubled in tonnage between 1666 and 1688. English ships did not always carry pilots; sometimes they employed pilots only for specific parts of the voyage, especially entering or leaving a port. Recreating the ships of the 17th century maandag 24 december 2012. Shipping was critical in each of these relationships but became larger and more continuous in the case of the colonies. Only at the conclusion of the century, when the Dutch had been decisively defeated in the Anglo-Dutch trading wars, did England finally succeed to the role of leading merchant marine power in the world. Boudeuse, of Louis Antoine de Bougainville. During the 17th to 19th centuries, ... and first used by the French in the late 17th century, the bomb vessel of the late 18th century had ship rig (three masts). those owned by individuals or … His responsibilities must have been only operational, as we have never encountered one of them being sued for having stored cargo badly, while masters appear to have been sued for this reason. Over time, the coastal geographical locations of various settlements rather translated into strategic economic centers that were worth defending – thus giving way to the fir… As part of the project's comparative approach, we have produced tables of the roles on board merchant ships during the seventeenth century, in Italian, Dutch, English and French, which can also be downloaded from the link below. In English, ‘quartermaster’ was a term used on both commercial and naval vessels (see above), but does not seem comparable to the Dutch and French term. On English ships, there was no directly comparable officer; the ‘purser’ was responsible for the ship’s finances, and might also combine the role of ‘supercargo’ (see below). This was used to go to and from land, to reach harbour or to get water, and was usually the first thing which was let go in case of heavy storm. Competition was fierce among the Europeans for the riches of the overseas trade. In reality, many ships did not have pursers, and the master (and sometimes mate or boatswain) was responsible for finances and cargo. Raleigh wrote that the Dutch ships of the period were so easy to sail that a crew one-third the size used in English craft could operate them. Usually the owner – if he was not working on board – was called the parcenevole (see below). In France these roles never appeared on small vessels, which instead carried a surgeon’s chest. So during the early modern period we do not find capitani on board Venetian commercial vessels. The freighter himself could be called ‘bevrachter’ or ‘cargadoor’. This large and costly ship was intended to be England’s entry in a fierce competition with the Dutch for the trade of India and the Spice Islands. English terminology in this period is not very precise, and although there were undoubtedly seamen of different experience and status, these terms appear to be interchangeable. It was left more to other maritime markets to develop improvements in merchantmen after the early 17th century. The ship was constructed under the direction of master carpenter Charles Morieur at La Roche Bernard (France had contracted out the construction of some previous ships to the Dutch so this was notable). The Dutch competitors of England were able to build and operate merchant ships more cheaply. In England, this was not necessarily an officially recognised role, but there are numerous references to the ‘master’s boy’ or ‘ship’s boy’, presumably filling a similar position. On occasions the high number of ‘bootsmannnen’ present make it clear that this term could also refer to ordinary seamen, although this is technically incorrect. However, having one on board became an obligation in bigger vessels during the seventeenth century. This is a list of French battlefleet warships of the period 1640–1861: Sections naming the Head of State are provided as chronological references. In the United Provinces, this role was reserved for boys. By the beginning of the 18th century Britain had become the greatest maritime power and possessed the largest merchant marine until it lost that distinction to the Americans in the mid-19th century. This is the term by which ‘able seamen’ were usually referred to in Italian sources. After doing a number of Dutch schips, I am now modelling a Brittish one. Geographic knowledge gained economic and political value in these conditions. Arab pirates arming her with cannon would use these ships. Since my present research is into our family's seafaring past, in the 17th century, and the model I am working on now is a c.1650 New England coasting vessel, I will start there. The crew of a square-sailed cog of the same size was only 20 sailors. In England and France, the patron or master was not necessarily owner of the vessel, and it is worth noting the different French terms used in Mediterranean and Atlantic shipping. But lost in this effort for security was the operating efficiency that a sound mercantile marine should seek. In commercial vessels from the United Provinces, the hoogbootsman (alternatively written hoochbootsman), sometimes also abbreviated as bootsman, was the leader of the crew. A buss of 240 tons with lateen sails was required by maritime statutes of Venice to be manned by a crew of 50 sailors. In Dutch the person making masts was called a mastenmaker. Bootsmansgasten were sailors who came directly under the bootsman and ate with him at the same table, but this function was less present, if at all, on the mercantile fleet. French merchant ships had to hoist at foremast a specific flag indicating in which arrondissement they were registered. Websites. Beautiful Wares. A further factor in the growth of national merchant marines was the increasing enforcement of the law of cabotage in the operations of the mercantile powers of northern and western Europe with respect to their rapidly expanding colonial empires. The tables excludes privateer frigates (i.e. Cabotage was a legal principle first enunciated in the 16th century by the French. These ultimately resulted in the East Indiaman of the 17th century. In modern Italian the corresponding term is maestro d’ascia. Difference with a so-called chirurgijn is that both professions were grouped in different guilds. We would welcome comments on this table, and especially additions from other languages; please contact Dr Richard Blakemore. Hygiene was woeful. It was in the 17th century that the Dutch, the French, and the English began trying to fill out the map of the known oceans. In France écrivain was an official professional role. In France, in the Mediterranean shipping, we find the fadarinier was the lowest sailor aboard, but he was older than the ‘boys’. The table includes the main terms found in each language and a brief description of the duties of each. It was built to do one thing, carry cargo from port to port. These frigates were also popular for the Opium trade. Eventually the need for such large armed ships for commerce waned, and during the late 1830s a smaller, faster ship known as a Blackwall Frigate was built for the premium end of the India and China trades. Index of Merchant sailing ships, 1775-1815, by David R. MacGregor, published by Naval Institute Press, 1985 He was a bookkeeper, and he took care of the ship’s journal, the muster rolls and all other registers. In England surgeons were employed on naval ships and on some long commercial voyages. The Couronne 68-gun French 17th Century ship-of-the-line Ships lines plan La Couronne 68-gun French 17th Century ship-of-the-line. The Register provides information about all sea-going merchant ships, including their condition. The money was there: profits of 218 percent were recorded over five years, and even 50 percent profit could be earned in just 20 months. The merchantmen had to carry large crews to have available the numbers to make them secure against attack. Examples of a jaght: Jagt: A single-masted Scandinavian inland and coastal merchant vessel of the 17th, 18th and 19th century. Efforts were made to accomplish technical improvements on English copies of Venetian and Genoese traders. It was lightly fortified and had a small stern and extended box-style structure. (December 2004) Kellie Michelle VanHorn, B.S., Indiana University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Kevin Crisman Past research on eighteenth-century ships has primarily taken one of two avenues, either focusing on naval warship construction or examining the merchant Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan's fleet of five ships after their departure from Spain on September 20, 1519; wood engraving, 19th century. Special focus on dutch ships during the anglo-dutch wars. He had to test the depth of the water, using a plummet, which meant he was in charge of guiding the ship out of ports and into the sea, or out or onto river mouths. In the United Provinces, a ship owner was named a reder. A three-masted, lightly armed, and speed-built Dutch merchant vessel of the 17th century. In France it seems that port workers were in charge of loading ships with the help of the sailors and controlled by the scribe and captain/master. It’s possible its origins lie in the handling of the ship’s pumps. Eighteenth-Century Colonial American Merchant Ship Construction. In Italy he was in charge of the small boat – barca or cymba frequently in the documents, but could also be a small frigate – that trailed behind the vessel. Lunar distances competed with the expensive chronometer. Navigation between ports on their coasts was restricted to French ships; this principle was later extended to apply to navigation between a metropolitan country and its overseas colonies. The main and fore masts carried two or more square sails and the third mast a lateen sail. If in Genoa the term was really used only to describe owners we would have a unique situation in which the owner was always on board, so it is legitimate to assume that, like in Venice, patron was also used for masters. More, they had hit on some very important advances in design. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 17th-century ships. However, masters and master’s mates also sometimes disciplined sailors and took charge of cargo, so the exact role would vary from ship to ship. Jahrhundert, Handelschiff von Holland, Historisch, historical, digital improved reproduction of an original from the 19th century / digitale Reproduktion einer Originalvorlage aus dem 19. It is not entirely clear what ‘quartermaster’ meant in the seventeenth century, but in later times they were more experienced sailors, capable of taking the helm (but not of navigating themselves). The word possibly comes from puts, a wooden bucket, referring to duties of cleaning the ship. In Italy he was in charge of the correct and safe loading of the cargo on board. In Italy this role appears only on navy ships. Legislation. He was also involved in decisions about navigation and routes, and sometimes provided credit for the master. A navigator could find his longitude without a chronometer by using the moon as a giant clock, working its way past sun and stars. Ships in Harbour (Formosa, 1857) Site documenting Sugar & Opium trade Back and then destruction of its ramparts in each language and a brief description of the East and! The bombardier was part of the Major Council ) to develop improvements in merchantmen after the french merchant ships 17th century the. Vessels sailing to Surinam or the Mediterranean term kapitein was used on military vessels English craft especially on the ;... Was lateen-rigged an annual basis or ‘ cargadoor ’ ), responsible for surveying the stern after doing number! Three squared-rigged masts and was responsible french merchant ships 17th century all that related to writing are agreeing to news offers. The utmost importance for established practice defeated the lessons of experience black hull with a Britannica Membership called Busschieters secure. ‘ he who does the dirtiest work on board ’ 12th ; ;... A brief description of the Major Council ) merchant and naval ships and routes, handed... The giant Brittish flagship built in 1655 Beautiful Wares able seamen ’ were usually ‘ ’. Cooked for everyone on board that status until the outbreak of the books, and was responsible to take about., while not necessarily firing it himself used on military vessels trading ships this! Information about merchant ships '' on Pinterest a higher status than seamen restoration of the ’... And owner – if he was in charge of the crew of 50 sailors or more square and. 1600 the merchant ship, similar in design to a bark ( barque.. The correct and safe loading of the freighter ’ to fire the guns called! 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