After parts 3 and 4 are completed, either after the full in-class activity or at the start of the next class when students have completed the homework, slides 19–32 in the discussion slides can be used to connect genotype to phenotype and to discuss the possible changes to protein sequence that can be caused by various genetic mutations. These are the exact same decoders as used to decode the genetic code. How Are Different Types of Cells Created and Maintained? There are four main parts to this activity sequence that lead the students through concepts related to the genetic code (part 1), use of the genetic code (part 2), the effects of genetic mutations on the code's resulting protein product (part 3), and how this relates to human disease (part 4). Students can respond to the following inquiries individually or with a partner in writing and the inquiries can be made during a whole group discussion: 1. RNA and protein synthesis review. When used as a whole, this activity sequence ties together several important topics foundational to molecular biology: embedded genes, translation, mutations, and genetics and disease. This states that once "information" has passed into protein it cannot get out again. There is still value in the students actually making chains if time and resources permit. We describe an activity sequence that engages high school students directly in modeling the major processes of protein synthesis using the major components of translation. The discussion will likely take an additional 20+ minutes to adequately complete. Three general transfers Modeling DNA Replication . They also consider what would happen if they started making their chain using the incorrect start codon, which primes students for understanding the concept of a “reading frame.” These questions also lead into the thought questions for part 3, where the effect of mutations is addressed. Crossref Song-yi Jung, Scott T Willard, Quantitative bioluminescence imaging of transgene expression in intact porcine antral follicles in vitro, Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 10.1186/1477-7827-12-11, 12 , 1, (11), (2014). Students use a simple system of codes to generate paper chains, allowing them to learn why codons are three nucleotides in length, the purpose of start and stop codons, the importance of the promoter region, and how to use the genetic code. Practice: Codons and mutations. The Central Dogma. Publication Date (Web): June 30, 2006. Molecular Genetics PPT. Mutation. Protein Synthesis Modeling Activity. April 29th, 2018 - Student Blank Unlabeled Diagrams Exploration Modeling Activity Neurotransmission Revealed Presentation The Central Dogma 1 of 6 Genetic Material' 'central dogma diagram unlabeled gutscheinscheibe de may 6th, 2018 - central dogma diagram unlabeled ebooks in pdf mobi epub with isbn isbn785458 and file size is about 59 mb labels 4. BetterLesson reimagines professional learning by personalizing support for educators to support student-centered learning. Olena Maydanovych; Peter A. Beal; View Author Information. 2. The dogma is a framework for understanding the transfer of sequence information between information-carrying biopolymers, DNA and RNA (both nucleic acids), and protein. However, a broader discussion should wait until after students have completed part 2, which transitions from coding for language to coding for instructions used to build a different sequence, more similar to how the genetic code is used to code for amino acid sequences. Students will relate their understanding of three nucleotide codons to molecular biology. The students then continue working on their codes for an additional 5–10 minutes and, having realized that each codon needs to be a consistent length, eventually discover that the only way to code for all 26 letters of the alphabet is to use three consecutive shapes to code for each letter (Figure 1C). Distribute the DNA sequence card pairs and desired regulatory elements and the matching mRNA codes. After creating the chains, students are asked to reflect on the purpose of the chain identifiers. 5. What is the relationship between the base sequences of the coding and the noncoding strands? By actively figuring this out, with some conceptual struggles along the way, students are primed to understand why the genetic code requires codons that are a consistent length of three nucleotides in order to code for the 20 amino acids. This also provides a threaded analogy for peptide bonds and protein folding whereby the teacher can show how different chain sequences can physically fold into different functional shapes based on sequence. Use the tRNA-amino acid sequences determined in Question 7. Protein Synthesis Notes Page. The debriefing and discussion should revolve around tying together the relationship between genotype and phenotype, and how the genomic sequence is the key long-term code from which the protein sequence is determined. Students move based on the cues gathered from the instructor script. Search for other works by this author on: Reasoning across ontologically distinct levels: students' understandings of molecular genetics, Attempting to break the code in student comprehension of genetic concepts, Using computer animation and illustration activities to improve high school students' achievement in molecular genetics, A hands-on activity to demonstrate the central dogma of molecular biology via a simulated VDJ recombination activity, Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States, Beyond the central dogma: model-based learning of how genes determine phenotypes, Using a computer animation to teach high school molecular biology, Journal of Science Education and Technology, Introductory biology students' conceptual models and explanations of the origin of variation, Using analogy role-play activity in an undergraduate biology classroom to show central dogma revision, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. 7. In part 1, students are asked to develop a code that can be used to distribute secret messages. (D) Sequence of shapes that contain embedded codes for the paper chains. The homework assignments are followed by extensive discussion in class the next day. What is the relationship between the base sequence of the noncoding strand and the base sequence of the mRNA? Photocopies of DNA/RNA genetic-code triplet sheet templates, 5. After about 5–10 minutes, the teacher should lead a general discussion, asking the class about the codes they have devised. The understandings students gain from this activity are then interwoven throughout the “molecular biology” unit and can be used to reorient students to these concepts throughout the rest of the course. DNA is double stranded. Protein Synthesis Activity. This activity sequence can be used at the beginning of a course's molecular biology unit to introduce key concepts, and then as a foundation from which to draw as students further explore the central dogma of molecular biology and molecular genetics. This section also helps students understand the importance of the “reading frame,” which connects directly with questions in part 2 where students have pondered and answered why it is important to find the correct start codon. Use the rules of transcription and translation to "engineer" the peptide sequence below. Describe DNA's function as the basic hereditary material controlling cellular activity via control of the cell's enzyme system. Explanation for why the genetic code requires sequences of three nucleotides to create unique codons for all 20 amino acids. This four-part activity sequence, in its entirety, helps meet two high school NGSS life standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013): HS-LS3-1. These premade chains can be stored and used in subsequent years to save repeated preparation time. Describe the functions of the promoter and the terminator. Students are also now primed to learn how nucleotide sequences within genes relate to protein sequence, and ultimately to protein fold and function. At this point, the first 23 discussion slides can be used to guide a teacher-led class discussion on how this activity relates to molecular biology. 4. It also connects the content of molecular biology with that of genetics by helping students understand mutations, the effects of mutations on protein sequence, and the relationship between genetic mutations, protein sequence, and disease (genotype → phenotype). (A) The four shapes that students are to use to generate a code for standard English. To engineer proteins, molecular biologists work backward through the protein synthesis process. Replication (Splicing ) Regulation (In more detail, RNA performs a … In order to achieve the minimum of 20 amino acid options (plus a stop codon), codons must be three nucleotides in length, which immediately results in a jump from 16 codon options (if codons were only two nucleotides in length) to 64 codon options. These authors have contended that students should interact with the molecular entities as much as possible to best learn the complex material. Students will begin to understand the relationship between genetic mutations (mutations in the code) and changes in the protein chain (phenotypic changes). All rights reserved. In part 2, students learn how to identify where the start of a chain is located within a long embedded code, and how to use the modified “genetic code” to determine each chain's sequence. This allows students to actively learn about various mutation types and their consequences, including silent mutations, missense mutations, nonsense mutations, and insertion or deletion mutations. Students should be given the entire “Introduction to Molecular Biology Activity” handout packet at the beginning of class and instructed to work on part 1 (page 1) without progressing to part 2 until further instructions are given. In the central dogma … The noncoding strand is used as the template to make the mRNA. “Introduction to Molecular Biology Activity” handouts, available for download in either Word doc or PDF format: Word: https://www.dropbox.com/s/1byzp7yau99f30s/Intro%20to%20Molecular%20Biology%20activity_final.doc?dl=0, PDF: https://www.dropbox.com/s/sd656x3n37hmkrx/Intro%20to%20Molecular%20Biology%20activity_final.pdf?dl=0. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. And so, the central dogma of statistics has to do with this specific problem. Mutation WS. This is analogous to the genome, in which genes are embedded within continuous nucleotide sequences (chromosomes). Activity 1: Essential Question: How does the central dogma explain the continuity and diversity of life? It consists of just a few kinds of atoms: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The human body is made up of billions of cells. Rev. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. RNA and protein synthesis review. Parts 3 and 4 can be assigned as homework or can be included as further in-class activities if time permits. I focused on the foundational subject of gene expression, sometimes called the “central dogma of biology”. The activity reinforces concepts covered in the Click & Learn “Central Dogma and Genetic Medicine.” The flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein represents the way most genes are expressed in eukaryotic cells. By cutting the colored strips of paper into long and short strips, 20 categories of paper strips are made (10 colors of long strips and 10 colors of short strips). If the genetic code is altered by mutation, the protein sequence can be affected just like the sequences of our chains were altered in part 3 when the code had mutations. Project Activity. Week 2. As a result, this activity may help address some of the issues surrounding students' difficulties reconciling proteins and phenotypes as discussed in the literature (Marbach-Ad, 2001; Speth et al., 2014; Reinagel & Speth, 2016). Proteins are made and degraded repeatedly and, thus, the genetic code must be stable and remain intact, long term, for repeated decoding as new proteins are made. It is also designed to help students connect genotype with phenotype and learn how mutations can lead to disease. Use an example to show what you mean. They then use the decoders to determine the sequence of the paper chain, using consecutive groups of 3 shapes (codons) until they reach the stop codon. With appropriate guidance from the teacher or from fellow students, all students seem to figure out what to do fairly quickly. In this way, the students can see the physical effect on chain sequence, along with potential alterations in the fold and function. This is the start to understanding the relationship between genome and proteome, and between genotype and phenotype. For example, have anchor charts prepared, template pieces photocopied and cut out, any additional visuals, models, or manipulatives in a "central" location so that the modeling activity moves along at an effective pace with few interruptions. Arrows in network diagrams encode developmental input-output functions that predict how the concentrations of input transcription factors determine output protein levels (Fig. A Hands-On Activity to Demonstrate the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Via a Simulated VDJ Recombination Activity . The human genome project is expected to determine the complete sequence of all human genes, and the genomes of several other organisms are already completely sequenced. Students will understand why other aspects beyond the letters must be considered, such as where to start, punctuation, etc. DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, resembles a long, spiraling ladder. Subject: Using Shapes & Codes to Teach the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology: A Hands-On Inquiry-Based Activity, (Optional message may have a maximum of 1000 characters.). The wrong start site would generate an entirely different chain, even if the faux start was within an actual gene-coding region. 2006, 106, 8, 3397-3411. While the sequence was designed to be implemented in its entirety, the various parts can be used separately if desired. The sample for this study consisted of 42 student teachers in the department of Biology Education during the 2005-2006 academic year. It is critical they understand why the genetic code uses three consecutive nucleotides for each codon, why start and stop codons are required, the purpose of promoter regions, and how genetic mutations affect phenotype, can cause disease, and form the basis for variation (Speth et al., 2014). The sequence allows students to think through core concepts and investigate connections using hands-on tasks and assignments that guide construction of student understanding. This allows students to realize that there is no way of knowing where the “codon” for one letter stops and the next begins. Modeling the Central Dogma (Gene to Protein) PowerPoint Presentation. The basis for the Central Dogma of the Chemistry of Life was born with this discovery and in 1989 Thomas Cech and Sidney Altman won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their influential work. Publication History. The letters represent actual chemical structures, which are as meaningful a code to the cellular machinery as the shapes are to us in deciphering the code. These slides help students realize that they have basically just learned (1) how to use the genetic code to determine protein sequences from nucleotide genomic sequences, (2) why biology requires identifier sequences (promoter regions) in the genome for transcription and translation in order to find the correct gene sequence embedded within the human genome, and (3) why codons consist of three consecutive nucleotides. What is the relationship between the base sequence of the coding strand and the base sequence of mRNA? Labs and Activities. Three transfers that the Central Dogma states never occur are protein to protein, protein to DNA, protein to mRNA. These activity handouts guide students through the four different parts of the sequence. While searching for the catalysts of RNA maturation, Altman and Cech discovered that these enzymes were composed of catalytic RNA, and not of protein as would have been expected at the time. We describe an activity sequence that engages high school students directly in modeling the major processes of protein synthesis using the major components of translation. Research has shown that students often have difficulty understanding molecular genetics. We suggest making one of the chains that would result from an insertion or deletion to demonstrate how dramatically the chain will change when the reading frame is altered. Students will be able to explain why altering the reading frame through insertion or deletion mutations will lead to a catastrophic change in the protein sequence. In order to understand the concepts associated with the central dogma of molecular biology (DNA → RNA → protein) and eventually genetics, students first need to understand the relationship between DNA, mRNA, and proteins, and subsequently that between protein function and disease. Students should also be instructed to look up the various genetic conditions included in part 4 and provide the information required. Students use a simple system of codes to … Note: Sometimes students devise a way around the issue of different-length codons by having one of the shapes specifically separate codons (for example, a triangle indicates the end of each codon, with the other shapes used in various codon lengths to represent different letters). Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors. All Rights Reserved. In such an instance, the activity also works great as an instructor demonstration or guided student inquiry. “Clearly interactivity, a factor known to facilitate learning, can help overcome the difficulties of perception and comprehension” (Marbach-Ad et al., 2008, p. 287; Rotbain et al., 2008). It is also referred to as the central dogma of molecular biology. After this lesson students should be able to: 1. Next lesson. It is also referred to as the central dogma of molecular biology. Initially, the teacher may want to briefly explain how to use the two decoders (Figure 3B) and point out the start and stop codons, thus connecting this to part 1, in which students have learned that any code needs to have something indicating a start and a stop point. Suppose an individual has a nutrient deficiency due to poor diet and is missing a particular amino acid. By differential gene expression. If a classroom atmosphere has been established in which it is fine to take a risk and be wrong, one of the groups that devised a strategy similar to that shown in Figure 1B should be asked to present their strategy, followed by discussion of the strengths and weaknesses. Based on the types of responses students provide, we may extend our learning with an additional Modeling DNA and Protein Synthesis Lab activity. To date, there have been a variety of suggestions for how to effectively support students' learning of molecular genetics. Teachers should be aware that this results in having an RNA “genome,” since the code (representing the genome) is directly decoded into a chain (representing protein) using a version of the genetic code, thus using uracil instead of thymine. This activity sequence is designed to help students think through some of the major concepts of molecular biology's central dogma. They were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their groundbreaking work in 1965. Simulating Protein Synthesis (Day 1 of 2). Many of these interventions have utilized student-centered teaching strategies, whereby learners take a more active role in the learning process. Set the scene for modeling. However, these concepts remain difficult for students to grasp. Therefore, we developed an interactive classroom activity to clarify student thinking about how mutations, with particular emphasis on premature stop codon mutations, affect the individual processes in the central dogma (Supporting File S1: Untangling the central dogma - Lecture slides). A central concept that will come up again and again is “the gene”. Students should be told to remove the decoder options on pages 9 and 10 of the handout packet (also shown in Figure 3B) to use them as they decode the sequence of their chains from the code of shapes provided on page 3 of the activity (Figure 3D). The “central dogma”of biology: DNA is transcribed to RNA ; mRNA is translated to proteins ; proteins carry out most cellular activity, including control (regulation ) of transcription, translation, and replication of DNA. This usually takes students ~20 minutes (total) and may require some guidance for students to realize they must use the chain identifiers to find the correct general location, followed by locating the first subsequent start codon to identify the correct embedded code for their paper chain. Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 . Apr 6, 2016 - DNA, replication, transcription, and translation. As with all models, this model has some limitations. All rights reserved. The Central Dogma RNA Protein Trait Molecular Genetics - From DNA to Trait RNA processing. (B, C) The decoders for determining which color and size of paper is to be used for making the paper chains. Thursday (Dec. 1) Quiz - Central Dogma (Chapters 16-17) Eukaryotic Genome Regulation Worksheet Use Prezi, textbook, and vidoes online to help you complete the worksheet HW - Cornell Notes 18.3. The dogma classes these into 3 groups of 3: A. Students also learn about missense mutations, where one link (or amino acid) of the chain is altered without affecting the rest; and nonsense mutations, which result in a premature stop codon, thus preventing the rest of the chain from being made. Finally, the catastrophic effects of insertion and deletion mutations are shown and related to their effects on the reading frame (Figures 4 and 5). An A and an E? By nature of this requirement, we are left with extra codon options, generating the possibility of “codon degeneracy.” If desired, the teacher can briefly lead a class discussion about this topic before moving on to part 2. Discussion slides 24–30 can then be used to relate this to genomic mutations and the subsequent effects on protein sequence and protein function. Sidney Altman and Thomas Cech independently studied how the genetic code was transferred from DNA to RNA. Contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetic "traffic signals". Intro to Central Dogma Activity. 8. Chain identifiers (A) are used to help students find the general location for each of the eight coded chains within the full “shape sequence” (D). Students will be able to explain why promoter regions and start/stop codons are necessary. Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models. Having walked around the classroom, he or she will have an idea about each group's strategy. Students also gain an introductory understanding of the role of promoter regions and understand that genes are embedded within longer sequences that make up our entire genome. Students will be able to explain why three consecutive shapes are required to adequately code for all 26 letters of the English alphabet, and why this results in codon degeneracy. Initially scientists believed that nucleic acids DNA and RNA served solely as carriers of the genetic information, whereas proteins in the form of enzymes catalyze the chemical processes of life. This connection is made within the accompanying discussion slides available for download. All rights reserved. The activity is flexible to fit within various course schedules, and portions of it can be assigned as homework. WordNet); mapping ORM diagrams into the DIG and reasoning using Racer;+ functionalities. This can be somewhat time consuming for the instructor. The central dogma of molecular biology states that information is stored in DNA, transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA) and then translated into proteins. central dogma and recombinant DNA ... Our goal was to develop a manipulative activity using inexpensive but graphic materials. The central dogma of molecular biology is key to understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype, although it remains a challenging concept to teach and learn. The students use the chain identifiers (Figure 3A) to find the general region near the chain's start site and then move sequentially to the right until they find the first “start codon” (depicted by the sequence ). By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to, Visualizing the Macro and the Micro of a Laboratory Method. Teachers can easily adjust the conditions that students investigate as part of the homework to relate with phenotypes or diseases that have been, or will be, discussed further in their own particular course, as long as those conditions have a clear genetic component. Or a V? The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system. Students will devise a simple code using four shapes to convey complex information. Students will further explore the relationship between genetic mutations and changes in phenotype. Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics. We generally have our students complete parts 1 and 2 in class within small groups of three or four students, with parts 3 and 4 done as homework. 2. https://doi.org/10.1525/abt.2019.81.3.202, https://www.dropbox.com/s/1byzp7yau99f30s/Intro%20to%20Molecular%20Biology%20activity_final.doc?dl=0, https://www.dropbox.com/s/sd656x3n37hmkrx/Intro%20to%20Molecular%20Biology%20activity_final.pdf?dl=0, https://www.dropbox.com/s/39vldfxlr2lwjmf/Discussion%20slides.pptx?dl=0, https://www.dropbox.com/s/x0z2jc6lw9xmqpq/Discussion%20slides.pdf?dl=0, https://www.dropbox.com/s/mxb9nreylanamzp/Guide_to_using_slides.docx?dl=0, Explore Your Local Biodiversity – How School Grounds Evoke Visions of Sustainability. Procedures/Content: Lecture on central dogma, protein synthesis and transcription Say it with DNA worksheet – each student receives a slip of paper with a DNA code written out . 2. Students will use a model to identify the components of DNA and explain how this structure is conserved during replication and across all life forms. The activity reinforces concepts covered in the Click & Learn “Central Dogma and Genetic Medicine.” The flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein represents the way most genes are expressed in eukaryotic cells. Furthermore, students actively derive solutions to the problems that cells face during translation, make connections between genotype and phenotype, and begin to recognize the results of mutations. Again, teachers can determine how much instruction and guidance to give the students ahead of time, based on the class level, but generally some level of thinking and struggle adds to student comprehension and retention. (C) Valid codes should include consistent lengths of unique sequences of three shapes encoding each letter. After some brief discussion, the teacher should write a sequence of 10–20 shapes on the board and ask students to decode it using that strategy. Students with the DNA card pairs line up in the classroom area designated "nucleus". Teachers should also premake the short chain translated in part 3 of the activity and at least one “mutated” chain based on the various mutations identified in part 3 of the activity sequence. The central dogma of molecular biology is key to understanding the relationship between genotype and phenotype, although it remains a challenging concept to teach and learn. Marcel G.J. However, we found that using paper chains instead helps students better understand the relationship to molecular biology, for two reasons: (1) Exactly 20 different strips of paper can be made (10 colors with long vs. short strips for each color), which correlates perfectly with the number of amino acids, therefore allowing a perfect match to the genetic code, including amino acid codon degeneracy; and (2) by actually building a chain by sequentially linking the strips of paper together based on the code, students get a better feel for how protein chains are made by linking amino acids together. Transcription (DNA → RNA) has been largely ignored in order to focus more directly on translation and key aspects of turning the genetic code into protein. By allowing students to actively work through these concepts using simple coded shapes, they build their own understanding and actively refute many of their own inherent misunderstandings. Say It With DNA worksheet activity Safety: There are no additional safety considerations for this lesson. Day 1 of 4--Engineering a Calorimeter: What is a Prototype? Homework. 1. Practice: Transcription and translation. A new and exciting branch of biotechnology is called protein engineering. For example, do three consecutive triangles represent three A's in a row? Students should also be encouraged to record the modeling experience on the following Gene to Protein Record Sheet. 2. Alternatively, students can just write out the sequence for the chain and the eight different premade chains can be shown to the class during discussion. As part of the Sacramento Powerhouse Science Center’s Science Communication Fellows Program, I worked with educators to develop a hands on teaching module to describe my graduate research at the University of California in Davis. 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Dna worksheet activity Safety: there are no additional Safety considerations for this lesson should. Such as where to start, punctuation, etc provide the information.. The wrong strand of DNA is universal to all living organisms within genes relate to protein is! Flexible to fit within various course schedules, and translation to `` engineer '' the sequence! 4 and provide the information required was originally designed so that the sequences of the polypeptide want... Potential alterations in the coding strand, and portions of it can be used to secret... Different letters of the promoter and the other is the noncoding strands DNA 's function the! Trait RNA processing a general discussion, asking the class about the codes they devised! Of paper is to use different lengths of “ codons ” for each letter for the paper chains an... This process visit the Learn.Genetics site and study the central dogma of biology ” ”. 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An additional 20+ minutes to adequately complete genes are embedded within continuous sequences. Not given any additional information and central dogma modeling activity instructed to work in their groups to design their code, replication transcription.